Glossary on Winery
Glossary - словарь терминов (глоссарий), применяемых в виноделии.
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
Not a very strong red, with yellowish reflexes due to excessive
aging of a light wine with weak character.
Sugars contained in must consumed by yeasts.
Chemical process of transforming an organic substance into less complicated
compounds (esp. the conversion of sugar to ethylalcohol by yeast) thanks
to one or more micro-organisms that get energy in order to survive or
Fermenting Room / Cellar
Room in which the fermentation tanks are placed.
Green glass container,characteristic of Tuscany. Its egg-shaped body
is kept in an upright position by a special external straw plaiting
; one of the oldest wine containers in the world, which has portrayed
Tuscan wines for Centuries, in particular Chianti.
Passage of liquid through a filter, keeping back the solid suspended
A wine that is finally fit to be drunk.
Must acquired by slightly pressing the grapes.
Fish Glue / Isinglass
Obtained from dried fish bladder and used for the clarification
Indicates a faint wine, with neither vigour,f reshness nor vivacity.
Indicates a wine that has lost its essential characteristics.
Indicates the scarcity and unsteadiness of olfactory intensity.
A distillate of low alcoholic content containing the volatile impurities
of the alcoholic liquid introduced into the alembic.
Fleur (Flowers Of Wine)
Disease caused due to a micro organism called Wine Mycoderma,
which appears in the form of a veil on the surface of wine in the presence,
of course, of air.
Floating Cap Fermentation
Type of fermentation of free-cap must onto which other must is added
which breaks it up and crushes it. This procedure may be carried out
using a pump or manually, with a tamper.
Flor Yeasts / Film Forming Yeasts
Micro organisms that develop just like a film on the surface of
wine contained in large containers, apart from alcoholic fermentation,
they also give rise to considerable oxidation-reduction during the aging
period which influence to a certain degree, the characteristics of the
wine. This particular phenomenon is usually used when preparing Jerez
A mass of small bubbles of gas that form on the surface of wine as soon
as it is poured into the glass and in such an intense way that it forms
layers of various widths whose persistance is in relation to the presence
of surface-active substances. It may even be coloured, in red wines.
Form (in Sparkling Wines)
A mass of carbon dioxide bubbles that form on the surface of sparkling
wines when poured into a glass (flutes or cups) so creating layers of
various widths up to a few centimeters and quite persistant. The latter
is very important in sparkling wines and indicates quality. We call
it transient when it appears at the beginning and evanescent
when it disappears rapidly. It may be coloured in sparkling red wines.
Floury substance which is chemically inert (extracted from floury
sediments of fossil remains of siliceous diatom shells) used during
the filtration of musts and wines.
In sparkling wines it refers to the long-lasting developement of carbon
dioxide bubbles coming from the bottom of the glass to the surface of
System permitting the extraction (and determination) of various
volatile components seperated from each other.
Assemblage of odorous sensations in the wine which develop due to transformations
occuring during alcoholic fermentation and in time, with ripening and
Used when referring to the combination of olfactory and flavour
sensations whose characteristics are those of freshness, frutty intensity
and all-round bouquet.
Free Organic Acids
Acid of the must or the wine not matching at the basis. The most
important fixed organic acids in wine are: tartaric, malic, succinic,
lactic, citric and tannic. The most important volatile acid is acetic
Term used when referring to a wine made from a must whose grapes
were neither squeezed nor pressed.
Primarily refers to wines having a rather pleasant acidity sensation.
Fructose (see Levulose)
Indicates a wine of fruity-fresh olfactory and flavour sensations (apple,
Indicates a wine with a remarkable alcohol content but also balanced
as its rich and full-bodied.
A wine embodying an excellent balance of its components (alcohol,
acidity, body), all qualitatively well represented.
Wooden instrument with a round or square shaped plate with holes at
the end, used to break up the mash cap of the berry skins by plunging
it into the must in fermentation.