Glossary on Winery
Glossary - словарь терминов (глоссарий), применяемых в виноделии.
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
The external trimmings on the whole (capsule, label, collar, bezel,
neck label, co-operative trade mark, pendants, etc.) which distinguish
the various bottles and before being used, must submit to certain rules
in turn becoming compulsory when referring to the main label.
Instrument used to measure the total acidity of the vinegars.
Process transforming the wine (containing ethylalcohol) into vinegar(containing
acetic acid) by the work of Mycoderma vinegar bacteria.
A sour tasting substance, to be found of course (organic acids) in the
grapes and in turn in the must and wines or produced in later transformations.
Organic acids contain one or more carboxylics COOH where the hydrogen
atom can be substituted by metals bringing about the presence of salts.
Characteristic of musts and wines due to the free acids contained in
them. It varies from a miminum of about 4% to a max of 14-15% (expressed
in tartaric acid). Its an extremely important element (along with
alcohol) of the wine. When its scarce the wine tends to be quite
flat on the other hand when its too high the wine is sharp,biting.
Used in the right measure it livens the colour, freshens the taste and
helps the wine keep longer.
Product deriving from the calcination of vegetable.
(see Actual Alcohol Content and Alcohol content by Volume).
Actual Alcohol Content
This only refers to the real alcohol content in wine, excluding
what may develop with further fermentation of possible sugars in the
same wine (see Actual Alcohol Content).
Musts or wines acquired using substances or treatments not permitted
by the law.
Procedure referring to when a must or wine gets in contact with the
The taste and flavour sensations that linger on after persistence
time and may sometimes be unpleasant.
Indicates the unpleasant gustatory characteristics found in descrepit
wines matured before time.
Development of the characteristics of the wine due to biological and
chemical phenomena over time. This may be either positive (i.e. improves),
when strictly related to the quality of the wine,or negative (i.e. worsens)
when the most suitable period of time is exceeded. Aging may take place
in casks or in bottles. When referring to the improvement concept of
a wine this term is often mis-used. In fact wine matures in casks while
it refines in bottles.
Similar to a little iron tongs, used for blocking the cork of sparkling
wines in bottle fermentation.
A cone-shaped cylinder bottle, typical of the Piedmont region, in
particular Alba: cap. 75cl.
A protein-based substance (found in milk, egg white, blood serum) used
for the clarification of the wine.
An organic substance derived from fermentation. This term is normally
used to indicate the ethylalcohol, a fundamental component of wines,
the basis for liqueurs and spirits (aqua-vitae etc.)
The alcohol strength of a wine (or other alcoholic liquid).
Alcohol Content By Volume
Quantity in volume of pure alcohol at a temperature of 20°C,
contained in a hundred parts of the product considered at the same temperature.
Alcohol Content By Weight
Quantity of alcohol in a wine expressed in grammes and compared
with the wine by volume (e.g. g of alcohol in 1 litre of wine).
Alcohol Content Of Wine
Indicates the quantity of ethylalcohol in a wine. This test is done
Term used to indicate the quantity of ehylalcohol in a wine,expressed
in percent. It may be in either volume or weight. When not indicated
otherwise it means actual alcohol content (see Actual Alcohol Content).
Alcoholic Content By Volume
Quantity of alcohol in a wine expressed in volume and compared by
volume with the wine (e.g. ml of alcohol in 1 litre of wine).
Transformation of sugars in musts and wines into: ethylalcohol and
other alcohols; acids and other substances with carbon dioxide formation
and heat development, by means of micro-organisms called ferments (Saccharomycetes).
Insrument used to determine the quantity (strength) of alcohol in an
Products deriving from the oxidization of an alcohol.
An instrument used for distillation, normally made of metal. Its name
derives from Arabic, al-anbiq (the still). The alembic for discontinuous
distillation is set up with: a boiler which contains the juice, the
wine or the liquid alcohol to be distilled and is exposed to heat; the
sphere-shaped dome, placed on top of the boiler; the cooling coil which
comes out of the boiler and plunges into the condenser through which
(since it is full of cold water) the alcohol vapours condensate and
are discharged as liquids.
A wine of pleasant acidity that at the same time preserves well.
Amelioration Of Musts
Amelioration procedures regarding the sugar content, acidity, colour,
A number of processes required in order to determine, qualitatively
and quantitively, the components of musts, wines or other.
The main colouring (red and bluey) of grapes and red wines.
Apparent Alcohol Content
When the quantity of ethyl alcohol is mis-calculated (by using a
bulliometer or an alcoholmeter set at a temperature different from the
liquid into which it is immersed).
A wine whose olfactory and flavour sensations are similar to the above-mentioned
Alcoholic liquid made from the distillation of fermented marc.
A term indicating any alcohol products (not over 80% in alcohol
content) which are made from wine and marc distillation and also fermented
(see Aqua-Vitae Heart)
The first part of what is distilled.
The core and best part of distillation, the richest in alcohol,
fragrance and aromas, the intermediate stage between the first part
(the head) and the last part obtained (the tail) in the distillation
A product acquired from the distillation of marc: its usual name
The left-over part in distillation, which is the last to be distilled.
A product acquired from the distillation of a particular wine.
Pentose i.e. non-fermentable sugar, which is part of the sugar residuals
Changes due to acetic bacteria causing acetification in the wine.
Calcined residue coming from the total evaporation of must and wine.
Air-tight metal container, with adjustable temperature, resistant
to high temperature, used during fermentation in the preparation of
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