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Glossary on Winery

Glossary - словарь терминов (глоссарий), применяемых в виноделии.

A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Accessories
The external trimmings on the whole (capsule, label, collar, bezel, neck label, co-operative trade mark, pendants, etc.) which distinguish the various bottles and before being used, must submit to certain rules in turn becoming compulsory when referring to the main label.


Aceticmetre
Instrument used to measure the total acidity of the vinegars.

Acetification
Process transforming the wine (containing ethylalcohol) into vinegar(containing acetic acid) by the work of Mycoderma vinegar bacteria.

Acid
A sour tasting substance, to be found of course (organic acids) in the grapes and in turn in the must and wines or produced in later transformations. Organic acids contain one or more carboxylics COOH where the hydrogen atom can be substituted by metals bringing about the presence of salts.

Acidity
Characteristic of musts and wines due to the free acids contained in them. It varies from a miminum of about 4% to a max of 14-15% (expressed in tartaric acid). It’s an extremely important element (along with alcohol) of the wine. When it’s scarce the wine tends to be quite flat on the other hand when it’s too high the wine is sharp,biting. Used in the right measure it livens the colour, freshens the taste and helps the wine keep longer.

Active/Vegetable Carbon
Product deriving from the calcination of vegetable.

Actual Alcohol
(see Actual Alcohol Content and Alcohol content by Volume).

Actual Alcohol Content
This only refers to the real alcohol content in wine, excluding what may develop with further fermentation of possible sugars in the same wine (see Actual Alcohol Content).

Adulterated
Musts or wines acquired using substances or treatments not permitted by the law.

Aeration
Procedure referring to when a must or wine gets in contact with the air.

After-Taste
The taste and flavour sensations that linger on after persistence time and may sometimes be unpleasant.

Aged
Indicates the unpleasant gustatory characteristics found in descrepit wines matured before time.

Aging
Development of the characteristics of the wine due to biological and chemical phenomena over time. This may be either positive (i.e. improves), when strictly related to the quality of the wine,or negative (i.e. worsens) when the most suitable period of time is exceeded. Aging may take place in casks or in bottles. When referring to the improvement concept of a wine this term is often mis-used. In fact wine matures in casks while it refines in bottles.

Agraffe
Similar to a little iron tongs, used for blocking the cork of sparkling wines in bottle fermentation.

Alba Bottle
A cone-shaped cylinder bottle, typical of the Piedmont region, in particular Alba: cap. 75cl.

Albumin
A protein-based substance (found in milk, egg white, blood serum) used for the clarification of the wine.

Alcohol
An organic substance derived from fermentation. This term is normally used to indicate the ethylalcohol, a fundamental component of wines, the basis for liqueurs and spirits (aqua-vitae etc.)

Alcohol Content
The alcohol strength of a wine (or other alcoholic liquid).

Alcohol Content By Volume
Quantity in volume of pure alcohol at a temperature of 20°C, contained in a hundred parts of the product considered at the same temperature.

Alcohol Content By Weight
Quantity of alcohol in a wine expressed in grammes and compared with the wine by volume (e.g. g of alcohol in 1 litre of wine).

Alcohol Content Of Wine
Indicates the quantity of ethylalcohol in a wine. This test is done by distillation.

Alcohol Strength
Term used to indicate the quantity of ehylalcohol in a wine,expressed in percent. It may be in either volume or weight. When not indicated otherwise it means actual alcohol content (see Actual Alcohol Content).

Alcoholic Content By Volume
Quantity of alcohol in a wine expressed in volume and compared by volume with the wine (e.g. ml of alcohol in 1 litre of wine).

Alcoholic Fermentation
Transformation of sugars in musts and wines into: ethylalcohol and other alcohols; acids and other substances with carbon dioxide formation and heat development, by means of micro-organisms called ferments (Saccharomycetes).

Alcoholmeter
Insrument used to determine the quantity (strength) of alcohol in an alcoholic liquid.

Aldehydes

Products deriving from the oxidization of an alcohol.

Alembic
An instrument used for distillation, normally made of metal. Its name derives from Arabic, al-anbiq (the still). The alembic for discontinuous distillation is set up with: a boiler which contains the juice, the wine or the liquid alcohol to be distilled and is exposed to heat; the sphere-shaped dome, placed on top of the boiler; the cooling coil which comes out of the boiler and plunges into the condenser through which (since it is full of cold water) the alcohol vapours condensate and are discharged as liquids.

Alive
A wine of pleasant acidity that at the same time preserves well.

Amelioration Of Musts
Amelioration procedures regarding the sugar content, acidity, colour, etc.

Analysis
A number of processes required in order to determine, qualitatively and quantitively, the components of musts, wines or other.

Anthocyanins
The main colouring (red and bluey) of grapes and red wines.

Apparent Alcohol Content
When the quantity of ethyl alcohol is mis-calculated (by using a bulliometer or an alcoholmeter set at a temperature different from the liquid into which it is immersed).

Apple
A wine whose olfactory and flavour sensations are similar to the above-mentioned fruit.

Aqua Vitae
Alcoholic liquid made from the distillation of fermented marc.

Aqua-vitae
A term indicating any alcohol products (not over 80% in alcohol content) which are made from wine and marc distillation and also fermented fruit juices.

Aqua-Vitae Body
(see Aqua-Vitae Heart)

Aqua-Vitae Head
The first part of what is distilled.

Aqua-Vitae Heart
The core and best part of distillation, the richest in alcohol, fragrance and aromas, the intermediate stage between the first part (the head) and the last part obtained (the tail) in the distillation process.

Aqua-Vitae Marc
A product acquired from the distillation of marc: its usual name is Grappa.

Aqua-Vitae Tail-End
The left-over part in distillation, which is the last to be distilled.

Aqua-Vitae Wine
A product acquired from the distillation of a particular wine.

Arabinosio-Arabinose
Pentose i.e. non-fermentable sugar, which is part of the sugar residuals in wines.

Ascescence
Changes due to acetic bacteria causing acetification in the wine.

Ashes
Calcined residue coming from the total evaporation of must and wine.

Autoclave/Pressure Tank
Air-tight metal container, with adjustable temperature, resistant to high temperature, used during fermentation in the preparation of sparkling wines.

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